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  11. haiku 【俳句】
Encyclopedia of Japan

haiku
俳句

A 17-syllable verse form consisting of three metrical units of 5, 7, and 5 syllables, respectively. One of the most important forms of traditional Japanese poetry, haiku remains popular in modern Japan, and in recent years its popularity has spread to other countries.

Haiku, Hokku, and Haikai

Loose usage by students, translators, and even poets themselves has led to much confusion about the distinction between the three related terms haiku, hokku, and haikai. The term hokku literally means “starting verse.” A hokku was the first or “starting” link of a much longer chain of verses known as a haikai no renga, or simply haikai, in which alternating sets of 5-7-5 syllables and 7-7 syllables were joined. Hokku gradually took on an independent character. Largely through the efforts of Masaoka Shiki (1867−1902), this independence was formally established in the 1890s through the creation of the term “haiku.” Haiku was a new type of verse, in form quite similar to the traditional hokku but different in that it was to be written, read, and understood as an independent poem, complete in itself, rather than as part of a longer chain.

Strictly speaking, then, the history of haiku begins only in the last years of the 19th century. The famous verses of Edo-period (1600−1868) masters such as Matsuo Bashō (1644−94), Yosa Buson (1716−84), and Kobayashi Issa (1763−1827) are properly referred to as hokku even though they are now generally read as independent haiku.

Development of Haikai

Renga, or linked verse, which began to be written in the Heian period (794−1185), was originally considered a diversion by which poets could relax from the serious business of composing waka poetry. By the time of the renga master Sōgi (1421−1502), however, it had become a serious art with complex rules and high aesthetic standards. Haikai no renga, or simply haikai, was conceived as a lighthearted amusement in which poets could indulge after the solemn refinements of serious renga.

When haikai began to emerge as a serious poetic genre in the early 16th century, two characteristics distinguished it from serious renga: its humorous intent and its free use of haigon (colloquialisms, compounds borrowed from Chinese, and other expressions that had previously been banned from the poetic vocabulary). However, the erudite Matsunaga Teitoku (1571−1653) succeeded in establishing a more conservative and formalistic approach to haikai. For Teitoku, humor implied a sort of intellectual wit, and the distinction between haikai and renga lay ultimately only in the use or nonuse of haigon. He established strict rules concerning the composition of haikai and sought to endow the form with the elegance and aesthetic elevation of waka and serious renga.

After Teitoku's death his formalistic approach was challenged by the more freewheeling Danrin school of haikai led by Nishiyama Sōin (1605−82). Sōin emphasized the comic aspects of haikai. Characteristic of the Danrin style of poetry was the practice of yakazu haikai, in which a single poet would reel off verse after verse as quickly as possible in a sort of exercise in free association. The most renowned example of this is the legendary performance by Ihara Saikaku (1642−93) in 1684 at the Sumiyoshi Shrine in Ōsaka, where he composed 23,500 verses in a single day and night.

Bashō was not only the greatest of haikai poets, he was also primarily responsible for establishing haikai as a true art form. Having received instruction in both the Teitoku and Danrin styles of haikai, he gradually developed in the late 17th century a new style that, through its artistic sincerity, transcended the conflict between serious renga and comic haikai and could express humor, humanity, and profound religious insight all within the space of a single hokku.

Uejima Onitsura (1661−1738) wrote haikai of exceptional quality, and his notion of makoto or “sincerity” represents one of the high points of Japanese poetic theory. Other notable poets of the time include Konishi Raizan, Ikenishi Gonsui, and Yamaguchi Sodō. Bashō also had a great number of disciples. Of these, the so-called Ten Philosophers are particularly well known. They are Naitō Jōsō, Mukai Kyorai, Sugiyama Sampū, Morikawa Kyoriku, Hattori Ransetsu, Kagami Shikō, Ochi Etsujin, Takarai Kikaku, Shida Yaba (1663−1740), and Tachibana Hokushi (d 1718). Nozawa Bonchō, another of Bashō's disciples, is also worthy of mention.

After Bashō's death many of his disciples set up their own schools of haikai. In general these poets sought special effects−with some writing enigmatic, puzzlelike verse and others satisfying themselves with witty wordplay−and at times their haikai became virtually indistinguishable from zappai and senryū, popular comic verse forms that had come into vogue in the Genroku period (1688−1704). In the late 18th century, however, there arose a movement of poets who sought to restore high aesthetic standards. The principal figure in this haikai reform was the talented painter-poet Buson, and the main cry of the movement was “Return to Bashō!” Buson possessed great imagination and culture and a painter's eye for vivid pictorial scenes. Other important haikai poets of the period include Tan Taigi, Katō Kyōtai, and Ōshima Ryōta.

The number of composers of haikai grew rapidly in the early 19th century. This popularization, however, was accompanied by a general decline in quality. The most notable exceptions were Iwama Otsuni (1756−1823) and Kobayashi Issa. Issa's poems about his poverty and about his love for small animals and insects are particularly memorable, and today he ranks with Bashō and Buson as one of the most beloved haikai poets.

Modern Haiku

The history of modern haiku dates from Masaoka Shiki's reform, begun in 1892, which established haiku as a new independent poetic form. It is a history that features constant experimentation and the confluence of various literary trends such as naturalism, romanticism, symbolism, and proletarianism. Basic to the modernization of haiku was Shiki's most important concept, shasei, or sketching from life−a term borrowed from the critical vocabulary of Western painting. The magazine that Shiki began in 1897, Hototogisu, became the haiku world's most important publication.

Shiki's reform did not change two traditional elements of haiku: the division of 17 syllables into three groups of 5, 7, and 5 syllables and the inclusion of a seasonal theme. Kawahigashi Hekigotō, who succeeded his mentor Shiki as haiku editor of the newspaper Nihon, carried Shiki's reform further with a proposal that haiku would be truer to reality if there were no center of interest in it. The logical extension of this idea was free-verse haiku, since the traditional patterning was seen as another artificial manipulation of reality. Hekigotō also urged the importance of the poet's first impression, just as it was (sono mama), of subjects taken from daily life and of local color to create freshness. Other poets associated with Hekigotō's shinkeikō haiku (New Trend Haiku) movement were Anzai Ōkaishi (1886−1953), Ōsuga Otsuji, and Ogiwara Seisensui.

Protesting against the prosaic flatness characteristic of much of the works of Hekigotō's school, Seisensui maintained in 1912 that free-verse haiku must also discard the seasonal theme. He held that haiku must capture in its rhythms not the object perceived but the poet's perception. The work of many able poets appeared in his magazine Sōun. Notably successful among them were Taneda Santōka and Ozaki Hōsai, who both led wandering lives of poverty, like the beggar-priests of the past.

In 1912 Takahama Kyoshi began in the pages of Hototogisu (which he had edited since 1898) his lifelong defense of the traditional 17-syllable form, the seasonal theme, and the descriptive realism of Shiki. He outlined his views in a collection of essays published under the title Susumubeki haiku no michi (1915−17, The Path Haiku Ought to Take). The first flowering of the traditional school was in the Taishō period (1912−26) and featured such gifted poets as Iida Dakotsu, Kawabata Bōsha, Murakami Kijō, and Watanabe Suiha (1882−1946).

By 1920 a second generation of poets clustered about Hototogisu, including Mizuhara Shūōshi, Awano Seiho, Yamaguchi Seishi, and Takano Sujū. The first Shōwa-period (1926−89) poet to break away into subjects previously avoided was Hino Sōjō, who wrote verses on romantic and sensuous love. Hototogisu continues to represent the central position in haiku to the present day.

Mizuhara Shūōshi broke away from Hototogisu in 1931, two years after having assumed the editorship of the magazine Ashibi. Shūōshi's talent for making imaginative use of the historical past shines in his collection Katsushika (1930). Ashibi was an important outlet for such poets as Yamaguchi Seishi, Ishida Hakyō, and Hashimoto Takako (1899−1963), the foremost woman haiku poet.

In the early Shōwa period the term shinkō haiku (new haiku) loosely identified all groups that deviated from the traditional Hototogisu school. In addition to the Ashibi poets and the modernistic school of Hino Sōjō's magazine Kikan, the term also included the proletarian school, headed by Kuribayashi Issekiro (1894−1961), originally of Seisensui's group. Other prominent proletarian poets were Hashimoto Mudō (1903−74), Shimada Seihō (1882−1944), and Yoshioka Zenjidō (1889−1961). Another politicizing group centered around the liberal publication Kyōdai haiku, which appeared during the period 1933−40 and accepted both conventional and free-verse haiku.

Joining Hototogisu in 1933, Nakamura Kusatao deplored the shinkō haiku movement for its emphasis on technique and methodology. By 1939 he was identified along with Ishida Hakyō, Katō Shūson, Shinohara Bon (1910−75), Ishizuka Tomoji (1906−86), and Nishijima Bakunan (1895−1981) as a member of the Ningen Tankyū Ha (“Humanness” school).

During the military-dominated prewar and World War II period, haiku was controlled by government censorship. The immediate postwar period saw an effort by the leftist union Shin Haikujin Remmei to “break the hold of feudalism in haiku and to expose war collaborators,” a pronouncement aimed at Hototogisu and other traditional schools. In 1947 many leading poets withdrew from this union. The Modern Haiku Association (Gendai Haiku Kyōkai) was formed in July 1947 to “enhance modern haiku” with the inclusion of all groups from the political left to the literary traditionalists.

The effort to unite all factions was stimulated by a widely discussed 1946 article entitled “Daini geijutsuron” (On a Second-Class Art), in which the critic Kuwabara Takeo maintained that modern haiku was not a serious literary genre but only a pleasant pastime. A number of efforts to “modernize haiku”−to make it relevant to contemporary experience−were stimulated by the publicity given Kuwabara's article. One such effort was Tenrō (1948−94), a magazine begun under Yamaguchi Seishi's editorship and supported by the prewar liberal Kyōto University haiku association together with some former Ashibi poets.

Ashibi, which continues to appear, is the most important vehicle of the nontraditional haiku. Other prewar magazines that continue to appear are Ishida Hakyō's Tsuru and Katō Shūson's Kanrai. Iida Dakotsu's Ummo ceased publication in 1992. The extreme haiku fringe of symbolism and surrealism is found in such magazines as Taiyōkei, founded in 1946 by Mizutani Saiko (1903−67) and Tomizawa Kakio (1902−62), and Bara, started in 1952 by Tomizawa Kakio and Takayanagi Shigenobu (1923−83).

Haiku Abroad

The West's first introduction to haiku came in B. H. Chamberlain's pioneer work, Japanese Poetry (1910), in a chapter entitled “Bashō and the Japanese Epigram.” William Porter's early anthology of translations was entitled A Year of Japanese Epigrams (1911). Haiku was first introduced to France by Paul-Louis Couchoud at the time of the Russo-Japanese War. The title of his introduction to haiku was Les Epigrammes Lyriques du Japon. The use of the term “epigram” in these titles is indicative of how haiku was first interpreted abroad.

Ezra Pound quickly noticed and appropriated the haiku technique of cutting up the poem into two independent yet associated images. In France Paul Eluard wrote poems in the haiku style. Haiku has rapidly become naturalized both in Europe and in the United States, and magazines of original haiku are published. Haiku magazines in the United States include Modern Haiku, byways, and Tweed.

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1. hai・ku音声
ランダムハウス英和
n. (pl. hai・ku)1 俳句.(また hokku)2 俳句風の英詩:特に5-7-5の17音節から成る短詩.[1902] ...
2. hai・ku
プログレッシブ英和
[名詞](複数形 ~)俳句;俳句風の短詩.[日本] ...
3. haïku
ポケプロ仏和
[男性名詞]((不変))((日本))俳句. ...
4. haiku
ポケプロ西和
〔日本語〕[男性名詞][複数形 ~s]俳句. ...
5. haiku 【俳句】
Encyclopedia of Japan
foremost woman haiku poet. In the early Showa period the term shinko haiku (new  ...
6. ハイク(俳句)
世界文学大事典
特に20世紀に入って,日本のこの短詩形は,アメリカやイギリスの実験的な詩人に多くの示唆を与えてきている。風雅と飄逸の自然および人生観照,イメージとイメージあるい ...
7. hǎi kū shí làn海枯石烂
ポケプロ中日
【成語・格言(形式)】永遠に心変わりしない.  ...
8. hǎikuí海葵
ポケプロ中日
[名詞]【動物】イソギンチャク.  ...
9. hǎi kuò tiān kōng海阔天空
ポケプロ中日
【成語・格言(形式)】考えることや話すことが無限に広がるさま.  ...
10. ハイクイ
デジタル大辞泉プラス
2000年に台風委員会により制定された台風の国際名のひとつ。台風番号、第2号。中国による命名。「イソギンチャク」を意味する。 2014年11月 ...
11. zhàikuǎn债款
ポケプロ中日
[名詞]借入金.  ...
12. Shan・hai・guan音声
ランダムハウス英和
n. 山海関,シャンハイクワン:中国河北省北東部,遼東湾に臨む都市;万里の長城の東端に位置する;旧称は臨楡(りんゆ)(Linyu)関. (また Shán・hái ...
13. さんかいかん【山海関】
国史大辞典
中国、河北省東北部、渤海の沿岸、万里の長城の起点にあたり、中国本部から東北地方に通ずる重要な関門。通称「天下第一関」の名がある。ここが万里の長城の起点となった ...
14. 腹が減ってはいくさができぬ
ポケプロ和仏
Il ne faut pas se battre le ventre creux.  ...
15. ヒッチハイク
ポケプロ和仏
auto(-)stop [男性名詞], stop [男性名詞] ヒッチハイクする faire de l'auto(-)stop  ...
16. Andō Tsuguo 【安東次男】
Encyclopedia of Japan
of Japanese poetry, conveying in his verses a haiku-like seasonal awareness. Amo ...
17. Anrakuan Sakuden 【安楽庵策伝】
Encyclopedia of Japan
correspondence in verse−chiefly kyoka and hokku (see haiku)−with, among others,  ...
18. Arakida Moritake 【荒木田守武】
Encyclopedia of Japan
1473−1549 Renga and haikai (see haiku) poet of the late Muromachi period (1333−1 ...
19. Arakida Reijo 【荒木田麗女】
Encyclopedia of Japan
life. She achieved fame for her mastery of waka, haiku, and verse written in Chi ...
20. Awano Seiho 【阿波野青畝】画像
Encyclopedia of Japan
l coterie associated with the haiku magazine Hototogisu. His haiku, while genera ...
21. Bakin 【馬琴】
Encyclopedia of Japan
Bakin. Scholar, novelist, critic, diarist, and haiku poet. Real name Takizawa Ok ...
22. Bashō 【芭蕉】
Encyclopedia of Japan
(1600−1868) who helped perfect the art of haikai (see haiku) and haibun in the f ...
23. bonito 【鰹】画像
Encyclopedia of Japan
it is celebrated in a famous haiku by the poet Yamaguchi Sodo (1642−1716), “Gre ...
24. bunjinga 【文人画】
Encyclopedia of Japan
was the acclaimed bunjin artist and haikai (see haiku) poet Yosa Buson. Buson's  ...
25. Bunka and Bunsei eras 【文化文政時代】
Encyclopedia of Japan
(now Tokyo). Novels, plays, ukiyo-e prints, and haiku all flourished. The coming ...
26. Buson 【蕪村】
Encyclopedia of Japan
1716−1784 Leading haikai (see haiku) poet of the late 18th century and, with Bas ...
27. Butsurui shōko 【物類称呼】
Encyclopedia of Japan
Edo period (1600−1868). It was written by the haiku poet Koshigaya Gozan (also k ...
28. cicadas 【蝉】
Encyclopedia of Japan
of Chinese literature. And even though in the haiku of the Edo period (1600−1868 ...
29. con・densed音声
ランダムハウス英和
version of the bookこの本の縮約版such a condensed form as haiku俳句のような凝縮された詩形.2 凝結した,凝縮さ ...
30. Danrin school 【談林派】
Encyclopedia of Japan
A school of haikai (see haiku) that arose as a radical revolt against the conser ...
31. earthworms 【蚯蚓】画像
Encyclopedia of Japan
for a long time in Japan and appears in both haiku poetry and folktales.  ...
32. Edo literature 【江戸時代の文学】
Encyclopedia of Japan
category of the early period, haikai (later known as haiku), developed from reng ...
33. Edo period 【江戸時代】
Encyclopedia of Japan
Hishikawa Moronobu, and the poetic essays and haiku of Matsuo Basho. In followin ...
34. fore・most音声
ランダムハウス英和
先頭の,真っ先の;第一位[一級]の,主要なthe foremost surgeons一流の外科医Haiku seems to have been foremos ...
35. fūryū 【風流】
Encyclopedia of Japan
ukiyo-zoshi. The second type was seen in haikai (see haiku) verse, Chinese poetr ...
36. Genroku era 【元禄時代】
Encyclopedia of Japan
style of haikai no renga (comic linked verse) and haiku (17-syllable poem) compo ...
37. Hagiwara Sakutarō 【萩原朔太郎】画像
Encyclopedia of Japan
Buson) expressed his love for the 18th-century haiku poet Buson, who advocated a ...
38. haibun 【俳文】
Encyclopedia of Japan
essentially a medium of the haiku poet, haibun shares certain haiku characterist ...
39. Haikai shichibushū 【俳諧七部集】
Encyclopedia of Japan
Matsuo Basho's style of haikai (prototype of haiku), the seven most representati ...
40. Hanabusa Itchō 【英一蝶】
Encyclopedia of Japan
to Edo (now Tokyo) with his father. He studied haiku with Matsuo Basho, calligra ...
41. haritsu-zaiku 【破笠細工】
Encyclopedia of Japan
also worked in ceramics, painted, and composed haiku. Haritsu-zaiku, which exhib ...
42. Hattori Ransetsu 【服部嵐雪】
Encyclopedia of Japan
1654−1707 Haiku poet of the Edo period (1600−1868) and founder of the Setsumon s ...
43. Hattori Tohō 【服部土芳】
Encyclopedia of Japan
the “truth of haiku,” and fueki ryuko, the dialectic of permanence and change in ...
44. Henderson, Harold Gould 【ヘンダーソン,H. G.】
Encyclopedia of Japan
his first book, Bamboo Broom, a collection of haiku translations. From 1935 to 1 ...
45. Hino Sōjō 【日野草城】
Encyclopedia of Japan
attention of the haiku world with his collection Sojo kushu (1927). In 1935 he s ...
46. Hōjō Dansui 【北条団水】
Encyclopedia of Japan
1663−1711 Haiku poet and writer of ukiyo-zoshi, a genre of popular fiction of th ...
47. Hototogisu 【ホトトギス】
Encyclopedia of Japan
Leading haiku magazine launched in 1897 in conjunction with the haiku reform mov ...
48. Iida Dakotsu 【飯田蛇笏】画像
Encyclopedia of Japan
school of traditional haiku, he contributed to Hototogisu magazine. His haiku ar ...
49. Iida Ryūta 【飯田龍太】画像
Encyclopedia of Japan
father was the haiku poet Iida Dakotsu. He published his first collection of hai ...
50. Ikenishi Gonsui 【池西言水】
Encyclopedia of Japan
1650−1722 Haikai (prototype of haiku) poet. Born in Nara, he lived in Edo (now T ...
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haiku 【俳句】と同じ俳句カテゴリの記事
haiku 【俳句】(Encyclopedia of Japan)
A 17-syllable verse form consisting of three metrical units of 5, 7, and 5 syllables, respectively. One of the most important forms of traditional Japanese poetry, haiku remains popular in modern Japan, and in recent years its popularity has spread to other countries.
しゃれ‐ふう 【洒落風】(日本国語大辞典)
松尾芭蕉没後、門人の宝井其角を中心に、元祿(一六八八〜一七〇四)の末から宝永(一七〇四〜一一)ごろにかけて、主として江戸に流行した知的、都会的な俳諧の流風。芭蕉が幽遠・閑寂な景情一致の作風を本位としたのに対して、奇抜な比喩やしゃれた趣向を喜び
はい‐ごん 【俳言】(日本国語大辞典)
俳諧に用いられる語。俳諧に用いて、和歌や連歌などには用いない俗語・漢語などの称。貞門俳諧では特に重視された。はいげん。*俳諧・毛吹草〔1638〕一「一句連哥にして誹言につまりたる時に」
きれ‐じ 【切字】(日本国語大辞典)
連歌、俳諧の発句で、句末に用いて一句を独立させたり、句中に用いて一句に曲折を与えたりする、詠嘆の意をもつ語。「野ざらしを心に風のしむ身かな」の「かな」、「古池や蛙飛びこむ水の音」の「や」、「旅人と我が名呼ばれん初しぐれ」の「ん」
れん‐く 【聯句・連句】(日本国語大辞典)
(古くは「れんぐ」)「れん(聯)【一】(2)」を構成する句。転じて、二人以上の人が、各自のそれを順につないで一編の詩をつくり上げること。のち、和歌と漢詩をつないだものにもいった。また、その作品。
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ギリシアのイソップ(アイソポス)が作ったと伝えられる動物寓話集。動物などの性格や行動に託して,ギリシアの一般大衆に,いかにすれば人は平穏無事に人生をおくることができるかを教える処生訓であった。この寓話形式はすでにヘシオドス(《農と暦(仕事と日々)》202~212行)
金太郎(国史大辞典)
伝説的人物。源頼光の郎等なる勇猛の士として、『今昔物語集』二八、『古今著聞集』九、『酒呑童子』(御伽草子)などに公時の名がみえる。江戸時代初期の金平浄瑠璃では主人公金平の父として語られ、その一つたる寛文四年(一六六四)刊の『漉根悪太郎』では坂田民部金時と称され、足柄山で山姥が奉った子とされる。
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