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  11. tea ceremony 【茶の湯】
Encyclopedia of Japan

tea ceremony
茶の湯/chanoyu; literally, “tea's hot water”; also calledchadō or sadō; the Way of tea

A highly structured method of preparing powdered green tea in the company of guests. The tea ceremony incorporates the preparation and service of food as well as the study and utilization of architecture, gardening, ceramics, calligraphy, history, and religion. It is the culmination of a union of artistic creativity, sensitivity to nature, religious thought, and social interchange.

History of Tea in Japan

According to tradition, Bodhidharma, who left India and introduced Zen (Ch: Chan or Ch'an) Buddhism to China in 520, encouraged the custom of tea drinking for alertness during meditation. In Buddhist temples during the Tang (T'ang) dynasty (618−907), a ritual was performed using tea in brick form. This was ground to a powder, mixed in a kettle with hot water, and ladled into ceramic bowls.

Buddhism was brought to Japan sometime in the first half of the 6th century. During the Nara period (710−794), the influence of Chinese culture included the introduction of tea in conjunction with Buddhist meditation. Early in the Kamakura period (1185−1333), the Japanese priest Eisai (1141−1215) returned from Buddhist studies in China, bringing the tea ritual practiced in Chinese Buddhist temples during the Song (Sung) dynasty (960−1279). In this ritual, called yotsugashira (“four heads”), powdered green tea (matcha) is whisked in individual conical bowls called temmoku (“heaven eye”), after the Chinese mountain where they were used in Buddhist temples. The bowl is supported on a lacquered stand (dai). Eisai also brought tea seeds from the plant that was to become the source of much of the tea grown in Japan today. Although wild tea grew in Japan, it was considered inferior, and the tea grown from Eisai's seeds became known as “true tea” (honcha).

In the early 13th century, the priest Eizon (1201−90) traveled around Japan preaching and extolling the curative powers of tea. His mission made tea drinking a widespread custom. The monk Ikkyū (1394−1481), one of the greatest figures in Zen Buddhism, believed that the tea ceremony produced greater enlightenment than did hours of meditation. One of Ikkyū's disciples was the monk Murata Shukō (Jukō; 1422−1502), who became tea master and curator of Chinese art to the shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimasa (1436−90). When making tea, Shukō displayed a hanging scroll of Buddhist calligraphy that he had received from Ikkyū. Shukō urged the aristocracy to avoid ostentation and observe Buddhist principles when drinking tea. At the shōgun's villa, later known as the Temple of the Silver Pavilion (Ginkakuji), is the Tōgudō, a small shrine dedicated to Amida, the Buddha of Compassion; within is a room called Dōjinsai, the first four-and-a-half-mat room designed for serving tea.

In Sakai, south of Ōsaka, there was a group of wealthy merchants called the nayashū (“warehouse school”), which espoused a modest manner of tea drinking. Out of this tradition came Takeno Jōō (1502−55), who taught the use of the daisu (the stand for the tea utensils), as it had been handed down from Shukō, as well as a sensitive connoisseurship and the aesthetic sensibility known as wabi, the contrast of refinement and rusticity. His influence was widely felt but was most important in his instruction of his student Sen no Rikyū (1522−91).

Rikyū transformed the tea ceremony, perfected the use of the daisu, and substituted common Japanese objects for the rare and expensive Chinese tea utensils used previously. Tea was no longer made in one room and served to guests in another, but rather was made in their midst, in emulation of Shukō's method. Many people began to practice the tea ceremony following the precepts and example of Rikyū.

Rikyū's successor, Furuta Oribe (1544−1615), introduced a decorative style that some considered superficial. Oribe's pupil Kobori Enshū (1579−1647) continued the grand style and was teacher to the Tokugawa shōguns, moving freely among the nobility, while also designing gardens and teahouses.

There were many masters of tea, with heirs and followers who eventually gathered into schools that served either the aristocracy or the commoners. Rikyū's way was passed to his grandson Sōtan (1578−1658), who was renowned for his humility and sensitivity. In turn, each of Sōtan's sons headed his own school: Ura Senke, Omote Senke, and Mushanokōji Senke. Ura Senke, representative of the commoners' tea, and Omote Senke of the aristocrats' tea, are the leading schools in Japan today.

Practice of the Tea Ceremony

The manner of preparing powdered green tea may be influenced by many styles and techniques, depending on the practices of the various schools. The following procedure is adapted from the Ura Senke way of preparation. A full tea presentation with a meal is called a chaji, while the actual making of the tea is called temae. A simple gathering for the service of tea may be called a chakai. The selection of utensils (dōgu) is determined by time of year, season, and time of day or night, as well as special occasions such as welcoming someone, bidding farewell, a memorial, a wedding, flower viewing, and so on.

The tea is prepared in a specially designated and designed room, the chashitsu. It is devoid of decoration with the exceptions of a hanging scroll (kakemono) and flowers in a vase (hanaire). The scroll, inspired by Buddhist thought, provides the appropriate spiritual atmosphere for serving tea. The Buddhist writing, usually by a recognized master, is called bokuseki (“ink traces”). Flowers for tea (chabana) are simple, seasonal, and seemingly “unarranged,” unlike those in ikebana. See flower arrangement.

The following are some of the highlights of a chaji: The guests, ideally four, assemble in a machiai (waiting room) and are served sayu (“white” hot water) by the host's assistant, the hantō, in order to sample the water used in making tea. The guests enter the roji (“dew ground”), a water-sprinkled garden path devoid of flowers, in which the guests rid themselves of the “dust” of the world. They take seats at the koshikake machiai (waiting bench), anticipating the approach of the host, who is called teishu (house master).

The host replenishes the water in the stone basin set in a low arrangement of stones called tsukubai (literally, “to crouch”). The host purifies his hands and mouth and proceeds through the ch$#363;mon (middle gate) to welcome the guests with a silent bow. This gate separates the mundane world from the spiritual world of tea. The guests purify their hands and mouths and enter the tearoom by crawling through the small door, or nijiriguchi, which the last guest latches. Individually they look at the scroll in the tokonoma (alcove), the kettle, and the hearth and take their seats.

Prior to the guests' entry, the kettle of water (kama) is placed in the room on a portable hearth (furo) with a charcoal fire. In winter a ro, a hearth set into the floor, replaces the furo to provide warmth. The host greets the guests. A charcoal fire to heat the water is built in the presence of the guests; this presentation (sumi-demae) is performed after the meal in the furo season and before the meal in the ro season. Incense, held in a kōgō (incense container), is put into the fire; sandalwood (byakudan) is used in the furo, kneaded incense (nerikō) in the ro.

The Tea Meal

The host serves the tea meal, which is called kaiseki or chakaiseki (the name derives from that of a warmed stone that Buddhist monks placed in the front fold of their garments to ward off hunger pangs). The foods are fresh, seasonal, and carefully prepared without decoration. Each guest is served a tray set with three courses: gohan (cooked white rice) and misoshiru (soup flavored with fermented bean paste), served in covered lacquered bowls, and mukōzuke (“opposite place”), plain or vinegared raw fish or vinegared vegetables served in a ceramic dish and placed on the far side of the tray. New hashi (chopsticks) of cedar are used.

Sake is served in an iron pitcher (kannabe) and drunk from lacquered wooden saucers called hikihai. Nimono (foods simmered in broth) are served in separate, covered lacquered bowls. Yakimono (grilled foods) are served in individual portions on ceramic plates. All the serving chopsticks are of freshly cut green bamboo. Additional rice and soup are offered. The host may join the guests. The palate is cleared with a simple light broth, kosuimono, served in covered lacquered cups, which is used to rinse the chopsticks. This rinsing, or hashiarai, names the course.

Hassun is the name of the next course, which is inspired by Shintō reverence for nature. Hassun (8 sun; about 24.1 cm or 9.5 in) is also the length of the plain wood tray that is used to serve morsels of uminomono (seafood) and yamanomono (mountain food), representing the abundance of sea and land. During this course the host, who has been serving the guests, eats and is served sake by each guest; the role of server is considered a higher position. Kōnomono (“fragrant things”), pickled vegetables, are served in a small ceramic bowl, and browned rice, representing the last of the rice, is served in salted water in a lacquered pitcher (yutō). Guests clean their own utensils with soft paper (kaishi) that they have brought. The meal concludes with omogashi, the principal sweet. In order to make preparations for serving the tea, the host then asks the guests to leave the room.

Preparing and Serving Tea

Alone, the host removes the scroll and replaces it with flowers, sweeps the room, and sets out utensils for preparing koicha (thick tea), which is the focal point of the gathering. The mizusashi, a jar filled with fresh water, is displayed; the water represents the yin to complement the fire in the hearth, which is yang. The chaire, a small ceramic jar containing the powdered tea, covered by a fine silk bag (shifuku), is set in front of the water jar. An appropriate tana, or stand, on which to display the tea utensils is chosen for the occasion. A gong (dora) is struck to summon the guests during the day; at night a small bell (kanshō) is rung. The guests once again purify their hands and mouth at the tsukubai and reenter, look at the flowers and displayed utensils, and latch the door.

The host enters with the chawan (teabowl), which holds the chakin (tea cloth), a bleached white linen cloth used to dry the bowl; chasen (tea whisk); and chashaku (tea scoop), a slender bamboo scoop used to dispense the tea powder. The chashaku often bears a poetic name. These are set next to the tea jar, which represents the sun (symbolic of yang); the bowl represents the moon (symbolic of yin). The host brings in the kensui, a waste-water bowl; the hishaku, a bamboo water ladle; and the futaoki, a rest for the kettle lid made of green bamboo, and closes the sadōguchi (tea way entrance). The host uses a fukusa, a silk cloth representing the host's spirit, to purify the tea container and scoop; examining, folding, and handling the fukusa deepen the host's concentration and meditation. Hot water is ladled into the bowl to warm it; the whisk is examined and rinsed. The emptied bowl is dried with the linen cloth. Three scoops of tea in increasing amounts are put into the bowl; then the tea jar is emptied into the bowl. Hot water is ladled into the bowl, sufficient to form a thin paste when kneaded with the whisk. A little more water is added to bring it to a drinkable consistency. The bowl is offered to the guests.

The first guest takes the bowl, drinks, and passes it to the others. The preferred wares for the teabowl are Raku ware, Hagi ware, and Karatsu ware, although many others may be used−Shino, Seto, and Oribe, for example. The bowl is returned and rinsed. The whisk is rinsed, the chashaku wiped, and the kettle replenished. The tea jar is cleaned and, with the tea scoop, is offered to the guests to examine more closely. The utensils are taken from the room. During the presentation, the utensils and related subjects are discussed.

The fire may be rebuilt in anticipation of serving usucha (thin tea), which helps to rinse the palate and to prepare the guests psychologically for their return to the mundane world. Smoking articles−a hiire (fire receptacle), a ceramic cup with a lighted piece of charcoal set in a bed of ash; a haifuki (ash blow), a length of green bamboo containing water to extinguish the ash; and a kiseru (pipe)−are offered on a tabakobon (tobacco tray). Since one rarely smokes in the tearoom, the tray is presented as a sign for relaxation. Zabuton (cushions) and teaburi (hand warmers) may be offered. Higashi (dry sweets) are served on a wooden tray to complement the bitterness of the thin tea. Thin tea is prepared in a way similar to that of thick tea, except that less tea powder, of a lesser quality, is used, and it is dispensed from a natsume, a date-shaped lacquered wooden container; the bowl has a more casual or decorative character; and the guests are served individually prepared bowls of frothy, light tea. At the conclusion, the guests thank the host and leave; the host watches their departure from the open door of the tearoom.

The Japanese tea ceremony, a social act founded on reverence for all life and all things, is enacted in an idealized environment to create a perfect life. Its quiet atmosphere of harmony and respect for people and objects, with attention to cleanliness and order, strives to bring peace to body and spirit.

Near the end of the tea ceremony, bowls of thin tea (usucha) are prepared and served to each guest by the host (left).

tea ceremony 【茶の湯】の関連キーワードで検索すると・・・
検索ヒット数 207
1. tea音声
━━ v.i. (teaed or tea'd,tead) お茶を飲む,おやつを食べる.━━ v.t. (teaed or tea'd,tead) 〈人に〉お茶 ...
2. tea 【茶】
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of green tea used mainly in the tea ceremony. Like gyokuro it is made from the c ...
3. téa cèremony
(日本の)茶の湯,茶道. ...
4. tea ceremony 【茶の湯】画像
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thin tea. Thin tea is prepared in a way similar to that of thick tea, except tha ...
5. ティー・セレモニー[外来語]
現代用語の基礎知識 2016
茶道。茶の湯。  ...
6. incense ceremony 【香道】画像
Encyclopedia of Japan
continue to the present day, although, unlike the tea ceremony and flower arrang ...
7. chashitsu 【茶室】
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A space for performing the tea ceremony. The term chashitsu generally refers to  ...
8. aesthetics 【美学】
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drama, painting, calligraphy, music, the tea ceremony, flower arrangement, and  ...
9. Akihito, Emperor 【明仁天皇】
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culture by Elizabeth Gray Vining, an American teacher known for her authorship o ...
10. Arakawa Toyozō 【荒川豊蔵】画像
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Mutabora kiln and began producing tea-ceremony freshwater jars, teabowls, and ot ...
11. Asahi ware 【朝日焼】
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Uji, Kyoto Prefecture. Most products were tea-ceremony wares and reflected the i ...
12. Ashikaga family 【足利氏】
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(see renga), monochrome ink painting, and the tea ceremony, the Ashikaga shoguns ...
13. Azuchi-Momoyama period 【安土桃山時代】
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of the ideals of wabicha (“poverty tea”; a type of tea ceremony supposedly gover ...
14. bamboo ware 【竹細工】
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Important tea-ceremony utensils made of bamboo are the tea whisk, or chasen, and ...
15. Banko ware 【万古焼】
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(now Tokyo). Old Banko and Edo Banko included teaceremony wares, dishes, bowls,  ...
16. Bizen ware 【備前焼】画像
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primarily of storage vessels and mortars. Tea ceremony ware began to be produced ...
17. Buddhist rites 【仏教儀式】
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sprinkling a figure of the infant Buddha with sweet tea. During Urabon'e (Skt: U ...
18. ceramics 【陶磁器】
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Southeast Asia, known as namban ware) for use as tea ceremony vessels. This inte ...
19. chawan 【茶碗】画像
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in the tea ceremony; it is now also the general term for rice bowls (meshi-jawan ...
20. childhood and child rearing 【子供としつけ】
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warmth and approval of the group. Psychologists and teachers have voiced concern ...
21. China and Japan 【中国と日本】
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ideas of social and political order, and the tea ceremony (see also Gozan litera ...
22. Chōjirō 【長次郎】
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guidance began making Raku ware for the tea ceremony. Chojiro's bowls are soft-b ...
23. confections, traditional 【和菓子】画像
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specifically with the tea ceremony, other varieties are widely enjoyed with Japa ...
24. con・join音声
v.t.,v.i.1 結合[連接,連合,合同]する“The Tea Ceremony” conjoins ethics and religion.「茶道」は倫理 ...
25. cooking, Japanese 【日本料理】
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series of dishes sometimes served before the tea ceremony; and kaiseki ryori, a  ...
26. Daijōsai 【大嘗祭】画像
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and the sokui no rei, or formal enthronement ceremony traditionally held within  ...
27. Dōsen 【道〓
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first transmitted the precepts (Skt: vinaya) and teachings of the Kegon sect of  ...
28. dyes and dye colors 【染色】
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values of wabi and sabi, associated with the tea ceremony. In the Edo period (16 ...
29. Echizen ware 【越前焼】
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the tourist and gift industries and for the tea ceremony, rather than for functi ...
30. fans 【うちわ・扇】
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named after the noted tea master Sen no Rikyu (1522−91), in the tea ceremony.  ...
31. flower arrangement 【生け花】
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throw or fling into”) emerged for use in the tea ceremony. An austere and simple ...
32. folk crafts 【民芸】
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on of articles. The popularization of the tea ceremony from the Muromachi period ...
33. food and eating 【日本人の食生活】
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development of the meal served during the tea ceremony (chakaiseki ryori), which ...
34. Fujita Art Museum 【藤田美術館】
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lacquer, textiles, and metalwork and Japanese tea-ceremony objects, all assemble ...
35. Furuta Oribe 【古田織部】
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foremost tea master after the death of his teacher, Sen no Rikyu, and the type o ...
36. fūryū 【風流】
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poetry. This latter trend gave birth to the tea ceremony in the Muromachi period ...
37. gakkō gyōji 【学校行事】画像
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Birthday, and New Year's Day. On the day of the ceremony teachers and students w ...
38. gardens 【庭園】
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of barren mountains and dry riverbeds. The tea ceremony (sado) as taught by Sen  ...
39. geisha 【芸者】
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geisha apprentice had to undergo the “deflowering ceremony” (mizuage) with some  ...
40. go1音声
to sleep眠るgo to war戦争を始めるSuddenly she went from tears to laughter.泣いていたかと思うと突然笑い ...
41. Gotō Art Museum 【五島美術館】画像
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mirrors and early jades; Japanese lacquer, tea-ceremony, and archaeological obje ...
42. Hagi ware 【萩焼】
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vessels, Hagi became renowned for tea ceremony wares. Hagi tea bowls are classif ...
43. Hatakeyama Museum 【畠山記念館】
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metalwork, and ceramics; Japanese lacquer, tea-ceremony objects, and costumes; a ...
44. Higashiyama culture 【東山文化】
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townspeople alike. Yoshimasa's patronage of the tea ceremony awakened a new inte ...
45. Hon'ami Kōetsu 【本阿弥光悦】
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literature. Koetsu showed great interest in the tea ceremony from his early days ...
46. honzen ryōri 【本膳料理】画像
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Japanese cooking (see also kaiseki ryori; tea ceremony). Honzen ryori is a highl ...
47. Horiguchi Sutemi 【堀口捨己】画像
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in Japanese tradition, he studied the tea ceremony and the tearoom or sukiya (se ...
48. housewives 【主婦】
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pursue part-time jobs, traditional hobbies like tea ceremony and flower arrangin ...
49. iemoto 【家元】
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such as music, dance, flower arrangement, tea ceremony, and No, to refer to eith ...
50. Iga ware 【伊賀焼】画像
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discovered by the tea masters Furuta Oribe and Kobori Enshu and introduced as te ...
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tea ceremony 【茶の湯】と同じ英語カテゴリの記事
impasse(プログレッシブ ビジネス英語辞典)
行き詰まり(=deadlock),窮境;袋小路 The whole situation is at an impasse. 全事態が行き詰まっている We are in an impasse.われわれは袋小路に入っている
1 敵,かたき,敵対者,競争相手 a mortal [or a sworn] enemy 不倶戴天(ふぐたいてん)の敵 a natural enemy 天敵 political enemies 政敵 a public enemy 民衆の敵(ギャングなどの凶悪犯罪人) an enemies list 敵のリスト
1 ((通例単数)) (物事の)終わり,終結,結び;終末,最後((of ...)) ⇒END1【類語】 foregone conclusion 当然の帰結 an effective conclusion of [or to] the war 戦争の効果的な終結 at the conclusion of the contest 競技の終わりに bring a story to a happy conclusion 話をハッピーエンドに導く.
n. (pl. ap・pen・dix・es,-di・ces) 1 付録,補遺,付表,追加.▼ 通例,巻末につける解説,統計,参考記事などで,これがなくても本文は完結している. cf. SUPPLEMENT n.2. 2 付加物,付属物. 3 〔解剖〕(1)突起.(2)垂,(特に)虫垂.
n. (pl. -sar・ies) 1 敵,敵対者,反対者(⇔ally).⇒OPPONENT【類語】 2 (試合・ゲームなどの)対戦者,相手(contestant). 3 ((the A-)) 悪魔,サタン. ━━ adj. (また((特に英)) ad・ver・sar・i・al)

「tea ceremony 【茶の湯】」は英語に関連のある記事です。
kabuki【歌舞伎】(Encyclopedia of Japan)
One of the three major classical theaters of Japan, together with the Nō and the bunraku puppet theater. Kabuki began in the early 17th century as a kind of variety show performed by troupes of itinerant entertainers. By the Genroku era (1688−1704)
kimono【着物】(Encyclopedia of Japan)
The word kimono (literally, “clothing”) is usually used in the narrow sense for the traditional Japanese wrap-around garment, worn by both men and women, with rectangular sleeves, and bound with a sash (obi).
tea ceremony 【茶の湯】(Encyclopedia of Japan)
A highly structured method of preparing powdered green tea in the company of guests. The tea ceremony incorporates the preparation and service of food as well as the study and utilization of architecture, gardening, ceramics, calligraphy, history, and religion.
Nō【能】(Encyclopedia of Japan)
The oldest extant professional theater; a form of musical dance-drama originating in the 14th century. Nō preserves what all other important contemporary theater has lost: its origin in ritual, reflecting an essentially Buddhist view of existence.
n. (pl. -sar・ies) 1 敵,敵対者,反対者(⇔ally).⇒OPPONENT【類語】 2 (試合・ゲームなどの)対戦者,相手(contestant). 3 ((the A-)) 悪魔,サタン. ━━ adj. (また((特に英)) ad・ver・sar・i・al)